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Becoming human : a theory of ontogeny / Michael Tomasello
VerfasserTomasello, Michael In der Gemeinsamen Normdatei der DNB nachschlagen In Wikipedia suchen nach Michael Tomasello
ErschienenCambridge, Massachusetts : The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2019
Umfangx, 379 Seiten
Includes bibliographical references and index
SchlagwörterDevelopmental psychology In Wikipedia suchen nach Developmental psychology / Ontogeny In Wikipedia suchen nach Ontogeny / Socialization In Wikipedia suchen nach Socialization / Evolutionary psychology In Wikipedia suchen nach Evolutionary psychology / Behavior evolution In Wikipedia suchen nach Behavior evolution
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I. Background: In search of human uniqueness -- Evolutionary foundations -- II. The ontogeny of uniquely human cognition: Social cognition -- Communication -- Cultural learning -- Cooperative thinking -- III. The ontogeny of uniquely human sociality: Collaboration -- Prosociality -- Social norms -- Moral identity -- IV. Conclusion: A neo-Vygotskian theory of human ontogeny -- The power of shared agency

Virtually all theories of how humans have become such a distinctive species focus on evolution. Here, Michael Tomasello proposes a complementary theory of human uniqueness, focused on ontogenetic processes. His data-driven model explains how those things that make us most human are constructed during the first years of a child's life. Tomasello assembles nearly three decades of experimental work with chimpanzees, bonobos, and human children to propose a new framework for psychological development between birth and seven years of age. He identifies eight pathways that starkly differentiate humans from their closest primate relatives: social cognition, communication, cultural learning, cooperative thinking, collaboration, prosociality, social norms, and moral identity. In each of these, great apes possess rudimentary abilities. But then, Tomasello argues, the maturation of humans' evolved capacities for shared intentionality transform these abilities into uniquely human cognition and sociality. The first step occurs around nine months, with the emergence of joint intentionality, exercised mostly with caregiving adults. The second step occurs around three years, with the emergence of collective intentionality involving both authoritative adults, who convey cultural knowledge, and coequal peers, who elicit collaboration and communication. Finally, by age six or seven, children become responsible for self-regulating their beliefs and actions so that they comport with cultural norms. Built on the essential ideas of Lev Vygotsky, Becoming Human places human sociocultural activity within the framework of modern evolutionary theory, and shows how biology creates the conditions under which culture does its work.--